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Ten studies had tested chiropractic spinal manipulation. Only one had a positive outcome, and all of the studies were poorly designed and/or improperly reported. Because the fundamental concepts of chiropractic are biologically implausible, they recommended that (a) future studies be funded by the chiropractic profession rather than U.S. taxpayers, (b) investigations should aim to test the plausibility of chiropractic's main principles, and (c) measures be taken to ensure that the studies are conducted properly.” Ernst E, Posadzki P. Clinical Rheumatology (30:593-600, 2011)