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Foreword to George Magner's book written by William T. Jarvis, PhD. (Quackwatch) NOTE: On the issue of informed choice, George Magner writes on page 178 of his book that "If relevant information is withheld (a covert lie), or if false information is supplied (an overt lie), there is deception. Under such conditions, treatment is administered under false pretences. Deceived patients are not able to choose freely. Only an informed choice is a free choice. Chiropractors who preempt their patients' ability to choose betray their trust and set them up for possible physical and psychological catastrophe."